Friday, February 7, 2020

Economics of Organisations TAKE HOME EXAM 1 writer for all 3 questions Essay

Economics of Organisations TAKE HOME EXAM 1 writer for all 3 questions - Essay Example Requirement for decreasing transaction costs causes formation of economic institutions so as to achieve transactions in the framework and via it to reduce transaction costs (Williamson O. 1996). Williamson formulates a clear representation between the 3 dimensions of transactions and the cost-denigrating control structure, with diverse institutional agreements rising with special linking of these variables. Transaction in particular assets can help in earning quasi-rents and these quasi-rents render the motivation for distribution of struggle. Those Agreements which helps in influencing the allocation of the quasi-rent should be decided, supervised, and imposed. All these processes results in transaction costs. If opportunism jeopardises the persistence of the deal itself then amalgamation would be the best solution since it can successfully restrain opportunism. Williamson, Oliver E. ... (Adopted from Dnaiel 2003) Asset Specificity Asset specificity is a rationally understandable perception. It denotes to the level to which an asset can be redeployed to different uses, without surrendering its productive worth (Williamson, 1996). According to John and Weitz (1988, p 24), "Because non-redeployable specific assets make it costly to switch to a new relationship, the market safeguard against opportunism is no longer effective." Consequently, if asset specificity is high, TCE forecasts that the firm has a tendency to use more incorporated channel structures so that transaction costs can be minimised. The normal proposal has benefited some level of back up in existential research. Anderson (1985), John and Weitz (1988), Klein, Frazier, and Roth (1990), and Majumdar and Ramaswamy (1995) all feel that asset specificity is definitely linked to the point of channel integration. But, Aulakh and Kotabe (1997) could not discover a noteworthy outcome for asset specificity on channel combination. Two researchers discovered back up for the potential integration between internal uncertainty and channel integration. Anderson (1985) determines that the complexity of assessing salesperson execution is certainly linked to the utilisation of a company possessed sales force. In reality asset specificity produces a specific form of monopoly which is based on stretched link between economic agents. Considerable quantity of the transactions' unusual investment is an issue for competence. At the same time it links economic agents in such a way so that they have to reckon on each other very powerfully. There are events where the parties enlarge the specificity of the assets affected in the contract so as to protect against ethical danger. For instance

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Human Trafficking Essay Example for Free

Human Trafficking Essay What is human trafficking ? It is the illegal trade or smuggling of human beings for forced labour. It’s the fastest growing criminal industry in the world and second largest after the drug trade. It differs from people smuggling. After reaching their ultimate destination, the smuggled people are usually free to do their own thing and find their own way in the country they have been smuggled into. However, in human trafficking, the victims are not permitted to do so. They are held against their will and are forced to work or be engaged in unlawful activities by the traffickers and others. The work may include anything from bonded or forced labour to sexual exploitation. Forced labour is a situation where the victims are compelled to work against their will, under the threat of violence or some other form of punishment. Their freedom is restricted and most often they are compelled to work in appalling conditions. Child labour which is in force interferes with the education of children and also affects their health and physical, mental, spiritual and social development. Most people think that trafficking occurs only in poor countries. It happens in many parts of the world and some of the countries to which these people are taken include America, Japan and Singapore. Many organisations and antitrafficking groups have come forward to prevent this from happening. The International Organisation for Migration, and the United Nations are just two organisations fighting to stop human trafficking. One of the best ways to stop or minimise human trafficking is to educate the public, especially the uneducated society in remote villages, about the dangers of human trafficking. The Government should impose stringent laws and take necessary steps to stop it. I would like to say: â€Å"Let’s fight together and stop human trafficking. †

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Spoon River in History Essay -- essays research papers

With the coming of the new century America under goes a change led by many different events. The collection of poems written in Lee Masters book Spoon River Anthology portrays the typical small town at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Show the different social, economical, and political trend and influences throughout the United States.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The city of Spoon River went through many of the same social trends that the United States experienced like social Darwinism and the change in woman roles in society. The idea of social Darwinism had its part in the country as well as in Spoon River. In Spoon River Anthology the character Felix Schmidt found out the hard way of the concept of social Darwinism where only the strong person wins or in this case the one with more money wins. Schroeder the fisherman also shows the example of the new concept spreading through the country. Schroeder tells of the conflict between many different types of animals in relation to the Felix Schmidt case how Schmidt was the weaker of the two and loses all his property including his little doll type house. Schmidt had to become a tenant farmer, since he became a tenant farmer he had to give a portion of his profits and income to Christian Dallman who was Felix’s landlord.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As Spoon River grew the social conflict grew between men and women in contrast to the role women had during the time period. The typical roles of men and women had a very strong line of distinction between them. However with time comes change these roles slowly began to intermix, mostly the role of women began to change. Women become more active in the community and the work place. With women becoming more involved in the jobs such as teachers it led to a very new and different life style. Teachers during this time were mostly men, however with the involvement of women and the racial movement which lead the 19th amendment giving women the right to vote and to end woman suffrage. During the many different wars that the United States got into the wounded was cared for by nurses, which were most of the time women. Women’s roles in the beginning of the 20th century had changed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As the economical ups and down took its tolls on the United States it also hit Spoon River hard. With the country going in and... with the most powerful man in the United States government shows that United States wanted to be more into the government policy. With many new presidents moving into office each had a different idea on how to help the United States. McKinley thought that if he would make a tariff that would raise the price on manufactured goods by 48% that it would scare off the people from buying products that were not American made, which would help raise the economy. What it did was just make things worse because other countries were putting high tariffs on American products so it hurt the United States businesses both large and small companies. . The people of Spoon River had encountered many different trends that had shaped the community into a typical town in the Unites States. From social Darwinism to the depression of 1893 to many different ways the railroad influenced the people and society of Spoon River. As Spoon River grows and ages with the country there will be many more and different trends and influences on the thriving little town. With many things to come from all of the different social, economical and political fields in the Unites States.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Financial Highlights of John Lewis Performance Essay

Sales Sales are the activity within a business for the purchases of products and service. This is also the operating revenues that is earned by the company  by selling their products or services. Last year, the business was involved in an accounting scandal, and saw the departure of some senior executives. However the retail giant, which has more than 3,300 stores in the UK, had a better Christmas than expected. The sales over the holiday period were down just 0.3 percent on the year before and up 0.1% if fuel sales are included. Overall, comparable sales for the three months to the beginning of January were down by 2.9%.Tesco’s chief executive, Dave Lewis, said the firm was â€Å"facing the reality of the situation† and was â€Å"seeing the benefits of listening to our customers†. Revenue Revenue are the amount of money that the business receives during a specific period which includes the discounts and deductions that are for returned merchandise Revenue is calculated by multiplying the price at which goods or services are sold by the number of units or amount sold. Tesco’s revenue increased from the years 2010 to 2011 from  £57,502m to  £61,174m. This infers to us that there would be an increase in the corporation’s stockholders’ equity and its assets. The revenues will increase the retained earnings section of stockholders’ equity. The assets that usually increase are cash or accounts receivable. Conversely within the years of 2012 to 2013 the business revenue decreased from  £64,541m to  £63,967. This indicates to us that the business reduced their pricing. However within 2013 and 2014 there was an increase within the revenue figures from  £63,967 to  £64,149. Profit Profit is the money that the business makes after accounting for all the expenses. This is a financial benefit that is realized when the amount of revenue gained from the business activity exceeds the expenses, costs and taxes needed to sustain the activity. Any profit that is gained goes to the business’s owners, who may or may not decide to spend it on the business. Tescos Britain’s biggest retailer Shares fell as much as 17 per cent to their lowest in around 14 years as it said trading profits for the year ending February 2015 would not exceed  £1.4bn. This is  £500m below current market forecasts of  £1.9bn. Debt Debt is the amount of money borrowed by one person from another. Many  corporations and individuals use debt as a method for making large purchases that they could not afford under normal circumstances. A debt arrangement gives the borrowing individual permission to borrow money under the condition that it is to be paid back at a later date, usually with interest. Within Tesco the debt decreased within the years of 2010 to 2013 from  £14.0b to  £13.5b because the business is paying off debts owed regularly which results in a positive cash flow. On the other hand the business debt increased within the years 2013 to 2014 from  £13.5b to  £14.5b. This is for the reason that the business are not paying off the liabilities that are owed. Pension A pension is a type of retirement plan, usually tax exempt, where an employer makes contributions toward a pool of funds set aside for an employee’s future benefit. The funds is then invested on the employee’s behalf, allowing the employee to receive benefits upon retirement. Philip Clarke and Laurie Mcllwee are members of the Tesco PLC pension scheme, which provides a pension up to two-thirds of base salary on retirement, normally at the age 60, dependent on service. Within the organisation each year’s pension earned before 1 June 2012 will be increased up to a maximum 5%. Turnover Turnover is the number of times an asset is replaced during a financial period. This would be the number of shares traded for a period as a percentage of the total shares in a portfolio or of an exchange. As we can see above, on Tesco profit and loss sheet there was an increase in the turnover from the years 2010 to 2011 from  £56910.0m to  £60455.0m. This indicates to us that Tesco has strong sales within this year as the business is re-stocking cash quickly and has a lower risk of becoming stuck with obsolete inventory. On the other hand within the years 2012 and 2013 there was a decrease in figures from  £63916.0m to  £63406.0m. This tells that the business is carrying too much inventory which suggest poor inventory  management and low sales.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

To what extent was salvery a harsh but profitable institution Free Essay Example, 1500 words

Slavery in the United s: To what extent was it a harsh but profitable Historians have long discussed the role of slavery in the agricultural boom of the 1700-1800s in the southern United States. In terms of national history, few disputes have been as hotly contended as the utilization of slavery for economic prosperity and the justifications that utilization entails. Although historians discuss the institution of slavery in terms of human rights and race issues, slavery in the United States has primarily been interpreted by historians as the economic issue that it was. Influential thinkers of the field, such as Peter J. Parish, Ulrich B. Phillips, Gavin Wright, Fogel and Engerman, have concluded their theses as proponents or challengers of slavery as an institution, not on moral grounds, but mainly on principles of economy. The discussion, however, whether slavery was economically profitable, has not concluded in agreement. Historians have argued over the relative profitability of slavery and the economic factors which must be analysed in order to prove that profitability. It is generally agreed that cotton production propelled the economic growth of the southern United States, which simultaneously spurred the growth of capitalism within the United States. 1 But the relative degree of profit the slaveholders themselves gained through the process is questioned. We will write a custom essay sample on To what extent was salvery a harsh but profitable institution or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Moreover, the severity of slavery itself, within cotton plantations during the 1700s and 1800s, is an issue where historians have equally not been harmonic. The harshness of the institution is the specific issue whereby historians have debated whether blacks were better off as slaves than freemen. Simply put, the relative profitability of slavery and the harshness of it are intertwined. Featured within profitability is analysis of who profited from the institution of slavery and what their profit was. Slavery developed for plantation holders to be a profitable tool in the production of cotton, involving the planting, tilling, harvesting, in short, getting the crop to market. As an institution within agriculture, specifically cotton production, slavery became as profitable as it was because of the particular time and place wherein it occurred: cotton plantations in the southern United States during the cotton boom. Slavery would not have been a profitable activity under other circumstances, and minus the lucrative potential of owning slaves, the practise of slaveholding could only be explained as a ruthless, indefensible act of tyranny.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Personification, By Rainsford And Rainsford - 880 Words

Personification is necessary to the story because it allows the reader to get a better understanding of the characters. From this conversation with Whitney and Rainsford, we receive more information about Rainsford and his ideas about life and hunting. Rainsford shows apathy towards his game and believes the creatures he hunts have no feelings. â€Å"Rainsford presumes that hunting is a sport involving no more moral consequences than a game such as baseball; he further demonstrates his naivete by assuming that his victims, big-game animals, have no feelings† (Dunleavy 1). Later these ideas Rainsford has about hunting game and their ability to emote is compared to General Zaroff and his ideas about hunting humans. While Rainsford displays indifference towards his animal hunting game and how they feel, General Zaroff has a similar belief with his hunting of humans. General Zaroff has become bored with hunting animals, â€Å" ‘ Simply this: hunting had ceased to be what y ou call a sporting proposition. It had become too easy.’ † (Connell 6). However, his solution to his boredom is sinister, instead of hunting animals he hunts humans due to their ability to reason rather than use instinct. Much like Rainsford, General Zaroff had no feelings of pity or resentment for hunting his game. Not only does he get enjoyment out of hunting game which has more cognitive complexity than an animal, he also seems to see it as his right to rid the Earth of those subordinate. â€Å"Life is for the strong, toShow MoreRelatedThe Most Dangerous Game By Richard Connell1360 Words   |  6 Pagesactions lead to many things. In â€Å"The Most Dangerous Game,† author Richard Connell reveals a conflict between the main characters, General Zaroff and Rainsford. Rainsford was to play the most dangerous game created by Zaroff, because the only way to survive, is to win it, otherwise death is the only other option. As demonstrated through the use of personif ication, symbolism, and repetition in the story, it conveys that one should understand to never underestimate another person and remember that there willRead MoreThe Most Dangerous Game By Richard Connell1319 Words   |  6 Pagesprey? In Richard Connell’s short story, â€Å"The Most Dangerous Game†, the character Rainsford has a change of opinion and feelings to this very question. In the beginning of the story, Rainsford is on a ship with a colleague and expresses that he is only concerned about the feelings of himself as the hunter and not those of the â€Å"huntee†. Not long after falling off the ship and arriving to a nearby island is it that Rainsford experiences what it is like to be the huntee. Connell uses many transitions withinRead MoreStudy Guide Literary Terms7657 Words   |  31 Pagesextended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meanin g has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy. Thus an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning 4. allusion- A reference in one literary work to a character or theme found in another literary work

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Apple s Vision And Vision - 755 Words

In day to day operations individuals in organizations and businesses it’s made clear that the organization needs a mission or vision. Vision deals with the future and where the individuals would like the business to go. Although, mission statement is there for a motivational boost on a daily basis while working toward the vision of the business or the organization. However, every business has a different mission and vision but they could center on the same goal for the near future. Apple has become very popular in the last few years from the latest phones, computers, IPods, headphone, apple TV, and much more. Although they are famous for what they are producing they have to focus on their mission and the vision to move forward in the industry. According to Henry Blodget Apple’s mission statement â€Å"Apple designs Macs, the best personal computers in the world, along with OS X, life, work and professional software. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple has reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and App Store, and is defining the future of mobile media and computing devices with iPad.† Steve Jobs original mission statement was â€Å"to make a contribution to the world by making tools for the mind that advance humankind. Steve Jobs died in 2011 the Co-founder of Apple vision was for Apple the company that turned powerful technology into tools that were easy to use, tools that would help people realize their dreamsShow MoreRelatedApple s Vision And Guidelines For Apple893 Words   |  4 PagesApple is a worldwide company that has proved its success from the very beginning starting with Steve Job’s vision and guidelines for Apple’s operation processes. Apple follows a strict set of operational strategies for its supply chain system. The customer’s demands come first in the supply chain with cost cutting strategies closely following. The next strategy involves setting ambitious targets to make significant improvements annually, slow yet steady. The fourth operational strategy is simplifyingRead MoreApple s Vision : Apple Inc.935 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services, and personal computers. It was established on Apr 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. Its best-known hardware products are the Mac line of computers, the iPod media player, the iPhone smartphone, and the iPad tablet computer. Its online services include iCloud, iTunes Store, and AppRead MoreApple s Mission And Vision Statement1197 Words   |  5 Pagesdistinguishes a leader from a follower†- Steve jobs. Apple created by Steve Jobs is a company based in the United States that creates, sells electronics such as phones and tablets. Since the creation of Apple in 1976 it has become a multinational billion-dollar company and one of the world’s most valuable brands according to USA Today. Apple’s sales are close to 80 billion dollars a year and it poses the question wh y is Apple successful? Apple is successful due to high quality, great marketing strategyRead MoreApple s Vision Statement And Mission Statement1360 Words   |  6 PagesApple Strategic Plan Leslie D. Wilkes Bethel University MOD 440 Essentials of Strategic Management Mrs. Payne June 5, 2017 Abstract Apple’s vision statement and mission statement are bases of the company’s success as one of the most valuable companies in the world. Apple value proposition is determined in part by the level of engagement consumers can achieve with their device both in terms of frequency of use and the range of features and services they access. Apple’s competitiveRead MoreInternal Environment Of Apple Inc. Essay839 Words   |  4 PagesThis section of the report will examine and analyse the internal environment of Apple Inc. which will cover the organisation structure. The internal environment of Apple Inc. would be examined through the use of SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis is used to analyse an organisation s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, in this case, the organisation is Apple Inc. however for the purposes of this section of the report, only the strengths and weaknesses will be examined and analysed. MeyerRead MoreLeadership Style Of Steve Jobs1149 Words   |  5 Pagesco-founder and CEO of Apple. In 2011,  he had a net worth of $10.2 billion.  Throughout the years, his visionary ideas and close attention to detail were instrumental to the products that Apple would go on to create during his tenure, including shopper gadgets disclosures, for example, the iMac, the iPod, iPhone, iTunes and the App Store, the Apple retail stores and the iPad. (Dodds 2013) This paragraph will critically analyze the leadership style of Steve Jobs the CEO of Apple inc, as well as his dominantRead MoreThe Leadership Style Of Steve Jobs1717 Words   |  7 Pagesand their personal lives. As the cofounder of Apple Computers and former CEO of Pixar Animation Studios, he revolutionized the computer and animation industries, amassing a fortune worth $10.2 billion at the time of his death. Jobs intuitively understood the power of cultural influence in sustaining the strategic capabilities implicit in his perpetual vision of creating. Describe the overall leadership style(s) of your chosen senior executive. Job s was said to have servant leadership. ServantRead MoreThe Leadership Style Of Steve Jobs Essay1721 Words   |  7 Pagesand their personal lives. As the cofounder of Apple Computers and former CEO of Pixar Animation Studios, he revolutionized the computer and animation industries, amassing a fortune worth $10.2 billion at the time of his death. Jobs intuitively understood the power of cultural influence in sustaining the strategic capabilities implicit in his perpetual vision of creating. Describe the overall leadership style(s) of your chosen senior executive. Job s was said to have servant leadership. ServantRead MoreThe Leadership Style Of Steve Jobs Essay1717 Words   |  7 Pagestheir personal lives. As the cofounder of Apple Computers and former CEO of Pixar Animation Studios, he revolutionized the computer and animation industries, amassing a fortune worth $10.2 billion at the time of his death.†(Hom , 2013) Jobs intuitively understood the power of cultural influence in sustaining the strategic capabilities implicit in his perpetual vision of creating. Describe the overall leadership style(s) of your chosen senior executive. Job s was said to have servant leadership.Read MoreLeadership : The Steve Jobs Case Study1549 Words   |  7 PagesJust like a transformational leader, he paid attention on â€Å"transforming† others by looking out for each other, to help each other by being encouraging and harmonious and to look out for the organization as a whole. At Apple, he is seen as a leader whose idealistic and brilliance vision of â€Å"providing computers as a tool to change the world†, brought other talented people to him. Creating valuable and positive changes to his followers with his leadership. Steve Jobs was known for being hardworking and